Wrought Iron – the ancient art

‘Wrought Iron’ describes a legitimate art form. Ever since man first learnt to smelt iron and forge the end product into tools and weaponry, there was artistry going on. But the Iron Age heralded such a demand for iron weapons and tools that their mass production became necessary, leaving scant time for artistic concerns.

Artistic expression is intrinsic to most humans however and even amidst the era of mass production there were artisans who would wrought iron into unique weapons; their pieces becoming highly sought after.

Barry Gardner - knifemaker South Australia

Photo Credit: Barry Gardner, Knifemaker – https://www.gardnerknives.com/about.html

Many smiths were employed in forging common iron fence palings and cage bars for the confinement of criminals, too, and amongst them there were to be found frustrated artists wanting to display their talents. It was from this latter industry that decorative wrought iron screens were born.

Wrought Iron bougainvillea

Pretty as a picture!

Wrought Iron - religious art

Little used in Australia where we reside, decorative wrought iron work is in common use all around the Mediterranean region. While it is often put in place for security reasons, it is obvious that those who choose to incorporate it in their buildings and public spaces are also keen to have it display artistically, and for the greater part it does just that.

Wrought Iron - decorative window

It serves a utilitarian purpose while beautifying spaces, doors, entrances and portals. Wrought iron, forged by the hands of true craftsmen, is in itself capable of making a significant architectural statement.

Wrought Iron - Tavira riverfront

Tavira – riverfront

The artisan wrought iron maker will often incorporate curlicues and swirls in their design, repeating panels where they can for dramatic effect. Sometimes they will incorporate a third-dimension.

Wrought Iron - balconyWrought Iron - decorative balcony

Wrought Iron - decorative balcony

Decorative Wrought Iron - balcony Symmetry is crucial to its success.

Wrought Iron - wraparound balcony

The classical straight line, in geometric form, can be just as impressive too.

Wrought Iron - entrance

Or a combination of styles.

Wrought Iron Window

Wrought Iron - eleganceThe addition of crafted flora or fauna can sometimes appear a bit OTT. But it is always tastefully added and often adds to the ‘grandeur’ of the work. These inclusions are not often without symbolic significance to the properties they grace, either.

Wrought Iron - palatial entrance

Simple, yet exquisite design.

Wrought Iron - wired glass window

Exquisite, yet functional (the doors to a local Fire Station).

Wrought Iron - fire station Tavira

Tavira – Fire Station

As gates, these formidable and stately barriers remain inoffensive because of their aesthetic value, while firmly stating “Advance No Further!”

Wrought Iron - farmstead entrance

Some hint of grander times.

Wrought Iron - neglected

Some say it with quiet, even simple, elegance.

Wrought Iron - whiteWrought Iron - charming white

Sometimes the artistry hints of a welcoming owner.

Wrought Iron - farm entrance

Or perhaps a haughty (but elegant) arrogance.

Wrought Iron - estate entrance

Or with flair that casts a spell.

Wrought Iron - crosswire

We can only hope the skill continues to be passed down to subsequent generations.

The Salt of Portugal

During Portugal’s ‘lockdown’ we spent two months in Tavira, a small historic settlement at the mouth of the Rio Gilão where it feeds into the Algarve’s extensive Ria Formosa waterway. We would ‘exercise’ ourselves daily by walking in between and along its salt pans. These large and prolific salt farms, rectangular in shape, range from as far as Faro to the west, to Castro Marim on the Guadiana River, Portugal’s south eastern border with Spain.

Tavira 25-29 May 2020 SOP (5)

Salt (NaCl sodium chloride). We know it as a seasoning for our cuisine, a preservative, and as salt-lick blocks for livestock.

Salt from the Algarve

These days, it is also used in the production of many other chemicals.

Tavira 19 Apr 2020 SOP (10)

Since mankind first walked on this earth salt has been highly valued, in fact it was once one of the most-valuable and much-traded products.

Photo credit: pinterest.com
Photo credit: pinterest.com

Salt caravans have been carrying crude rock-salt across central Africa since time immemorial. Broken out from ancient sedimentary salt beds it is first shaped into convenient slabs then strapped, pannier-style, onto donkeys or camels and transported to fabled trading posts such as Timbuktu and Mekele. This traditional harvesting process and mode of transportation continues today. The ancient sedimentary beds, found in in Mali’s desert region¹, Ethiopia’s Danakil Depression², and in the Sahara desert as well as parts of greater Asia, are vast and seemingly inexhaustible. They are, however, finite.

Contemporaneously, coastal dwellers in temperate climates found they could harvest a constantly renewable source from the sea by constructing salt ‘pans’.

Tavira 4 Apr 2020 SOP (14)

These ancient and extensive pans can be seen today in Namibia’s Walvis Bay³ and much further to the north – on the Iberian Peninsula’s southwestern coast where, in the process of colonisation, commerce and settlement the Phoenicians, followed by the Greeks, Romans, and then the Moors utilised the region’s idyllic features to develop this ancient venture. They also grasped the region’s potential for wide-scale production of much sought-after olives, carob, corn and grapes. But that’s another story.

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It was in this latter region, during the Covid-19 global panic that we had the leisure to explore the extent of Portugal’s salt pans on the Algarve province’s south coast. Its favourable climate and topography: broad river deltas and thousands of hectares of low-lying coastal flatlands with sheltering off-shore dune-islands, have long proven ideal for salt production.

Tavira 25-29 May 2020 SOP (4)

Tavira 8 May 2020 SOP(5)

With only wading and water-birds’ cries to accompany us we could turn our face in whichever direction we desired and walk for hours in splendid solitude under expansive summer-blue skies. On the chequerboard ‘tracks’ of the salt pans’ raised median mounds – used both by the pans’ workers and a few locals out for exercise – we had unfettered access to this tidal environment, enjoying the rich hues of the salt-tolerant bush and flora, large flocks of (very shy) pink flamingos, wading birds and the small, omnipresent mud crabs.

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Photo credit: tavira.pt

Nature, time, weather and tides; the process of coastal salt harvesting involves integration with all these factors.

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The result is a striking palette of colours.

Tavira 4 Apr 2020 SOP (24b)

Tavira-Santa Luzia 7 May 2020 SOP (4)

Faro-Tavira 3 Jun 2020 SOP (57)

While the pans when first flooded retain the colour of the bottom, under evaporation they increase salinity and algae starts to grow and flourish causing the water to take on a greenish hue. As flow continues and additional evaporation takes place the salinity increases causing the algae to die and become brown. The pink colour which often occurs is caused by another microorganism, a single cell life-form called halophilic bacteria.

Tavira-Luz 23 May 2020 SOP (4)

These thrive in high salinity brine. The cell membranes contain carotenoid pigments which give the crystals the pink-red color. The dark color increases the absorption of sun light which increases the temperature which in turn usefully increases evaporation and salt production.

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Tavira 25-29 May 2020 SOP (10)

Tavira-Santa Luzia 15 May 2020 SOP(2)

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The pans, all in different phases of enrichment and interconnected until deemed ready for final ‘salination’, alternately shimmer, glisten, or are glazed, ice-like.

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Some have the makings of a sugar-like frosted surface – the much vaunted ‘flor de sal’.

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Some pans are left fallow and dry; others are left free-flowing to the ocean tide and are inhabited by small fish – more food for avian raptors. It is a very busy, cyclical and timeless natural environment.

Faro-Tavira 3 Jun 2020 SOP (59)

Faro-Tavira 3 Jun 2020 SOP (53)

¹ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZ1eQ99Triw
² https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PgDiW2ELx7k
³ https://www.bbc.com/news/av/business-48201024

For those of you who have a deeper interest in the source of salt I would keenly recommend this site:

Tavira 30 May 2020 SOP (2)
Unless credited, all photos by JC & R Watkins

NOTE: While being keen followers of the Portuguese food website “Salt of Portugal”, we have no affiliation to it.